I can’t decide if 2021 flew by or lasted forever – regardless, here we are at its end. As a now annual tradition (two years in a row, woohoo!) Chris, myself, and some of our friends do a roundup of our favorite songs released that year. There are three rules:
•The songs must have come out in 2021.
•You can only choose 25 songs.
•Only 2 songs per artist.
Here’s my final list, with some explanation for why I chose certain songs, and some of my favorite lyrics. They aren’t in any specific ranked order, I just organized them by the flow I liked. You can listen to my playlist both here on Spotify or here on Apple Music. I know the beginning is quite electronic heavy, but for those of you not into that it does change – I promise!
•Ani Kuni by Polo & Pan
As soon as I heard this song I was hooked, especially after watching the music video (which you can view here.) Polo & Pan was heavily a part of our friends group summer soundtrack this year – so much that one summer night sitting in our garden we all decided to impulse buy tickets to their December show in Chicago. After many long months the show came into fruition and it was a great night of dancing and singing and merry making!
•Numb by Sylvan Esso
“Shaking out the numb, let me feel something” – reminds me that physical movement can help my emotional being feel a little better – especially dancing!
•Only Love by Tycho & Benjamin Gibbard
I feel like saying Tycho & Benjamin Gibbard is enough?! If you know you know. Electronic music of my present meets electronic music of my youth.
•Astro Funk by GRiZ
This song (and album) were a HUGE part of the friends group summer soundtrack. Sunny days spent speeding around on a boat, blasting music, watching friends wakeboard, enjoying beer, and basking in the presence of great people.
•Gold by GRiZ
As mentioned above, this album was a significant part of our summer soundtrack. I also like the part where it says “woof” because Chris nails it every time and makes me giggle.
•Catching Smoke by King Gizzard & The Lizard Wizard
This song is very groovy and catchy, but my favorite thing about it is the music video (which can be viewed here.) So weird, beautiful, and brilliant!
•Creatures by Viagra Boys
This is simply my favorite song from their album this year.
•Ain’t No Bread in the Bread Box by Greensky Bluegrass
The original version of this song is great, so of course when one of my favorite bands covers it I love it! This is from the Greensky Bluegrass The Leap Year Sessions, a collection of songs taken from a series of live-streamed performances. Chris and I caught ourselves singing it with gusto a ton this year. Greensky Bluegrass was also the first live concert we went to since Covid began – it was magical and I wouldn’t have had it any other way.
•Wish I Didn’t Know by Greensky Bluegrass
Another one from The Leap Year Sessions (a collection of songs taken from a series of live-streamed performances.)
“Here I go spilling my heart with music Forget everything you’ve learned about me If I dare, if I may have a say in what you remember will be I hope it’s the way I’m gonna kiss you”
•Show Me The Door by Billy Strings
We saw Billy Strings THREE times this year! Good ol’ Michigan bluegrass. His 2020 album won a Grammy, and he’s nominated for a few this year too!
“She ebbs and flows like water,and she feels just like wine.”
•Hide And Seek by Billy Strings
My favorite song I saw performed live this year. Such an epic jam session necessitated some wild dancing.
•That Funny Feeling by Phoebe Bridgers
I love everything Phoebe Bridgers does, including this Bo Burnham cover. All proceeds from this song go to Texas Abortion Funds.
•Day After Tomorrow by Phoebe Bridgers
Another great Phoebe cover – this time Tom Waits! All proceeds from this song go to International Institute of Los Angeles, who provide aid to immigrants, refugees, and survivors of human trafficking.
•Brando by Lucy Dacus
An incredibly talented artist, and I love all the film references in this song.
•Song of Trouble by CARM feat. Sufjan Stevens
I’ll take any opportunity to hear Sufjan softly crooning away.
•Before You Gotta Go by Courtney Barnett
Chris and I spent many an evening sitting out on our stoop, sipping beer and enjoying Courtney Barnett.
“If somethin’ were to happen, my dear I wouldn’t want the last words you hear To be unkind”
•BOY HOOD by Jon Batiste feat. PJ Morton & Trombone Shorty
I love Jon Batiste, and I love how much this song reps New Orleans. The best part is the transition to jazz towards the end.
•brutal by Olivia Rodrigo
Her whole album is catchy and one I listened to quite a bit this year. A lot of talent for such a youngin’.
•Good Girls (Don’t Get Used) by Beach Bunny
This was my favorite band I discovered this year. Very 90s/00s pop punk, which happens to be one of my favorite genres.
•Love Sick by Beach Bunny
What I said above. 🙂
•Kokomo, IN by Japanese Breakfast
“Watching you show off to the world The parts I fell so hard for”
•Change by Big Thief
I’m crazy about Adrianne Lenker’s voice and lyrical writing skills.
•Renegade by Big Red Machine feat. Taylor Swift
Mostly included this so my pal Jake wouldn’t yell at me for not including anything touched by Justin Vernon. So here you go – with my girl Taylor Swift!
•All Too Well (10 Minute Version) (Taylor’s Version) by Taylor Swift
Hands down, absolutely my favorite song that came out in 2021. Myself, like so many other people, can relate past relationships with these lyrics. Plus, the new additions are just so damn good! Check out her live performance of it on SNL here.
“And I was never good at telling jokes, but the punch line goes: I’ll get older, but your lovers stay my age”
•Hard Drive by Cassandra Jenkins
The perfect end of the year (thus end of the playlist) song.
“She said, “Oh, dear, I can see you’ve had a rough few months But this year, it’s gonna be a good one I’ll count to three and tap your shoulder We’re gonna put your heart back together So all those little pieces they took from you They’re coming back now They’ll miss ’em too So close your eyes I’ll count to three Take a deep breath Count with me””
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. Cloudspotter members.)
As many of you may know, at Stormcloud Brewing Company we have a brand new beer on tap—theFoeder Aged Schwarzbier. This beer has been dubbed the Official Beer of Stormcloud Curling, and is delicious both on and off the ice. In this post, I want to give you a little insight into the Schwarzbier style.
The Beer Judge Certification Program Guidelines describes Schwarzbier as, “a dark German lager that balances roasted yet smooth malt flavors with moderate hop bitterness. The lighter body, dryness, and lack of a harsh, burnt, or heavy aftertaste helps make this beer quite drinkable.”¹ This style is sometimes simply called a black lager, which makes sense, as “schwarz” translates to “black” in English.
The difference between an ale and lager is that ales are fermented with top-fermenting yeast at higher temperatures for a shorter amount of time; and lagers are fermented with bottom fermenting yeast at lower temperatures for a longer time.
Color: The color range for the Schwarzbier is between 17 and 30 SRM¹ — see image below for reference. It can be between medium and dark brown in color, often with deep ruby to garnet highlights.¹ Beer writer Joshua M. Bernstein calls it a “Darth Vader-colored brew” as well as “Germany’s inkiest, most delicious beer.”⁴
Aroma: Low to moderate malt, with a low aromatic malty sweetness and/or hints of roast malt often apparent. The malt can be neutral or rich and bready, and may have a hint of dark caramel. The roast character can be somewhat reminiscent of dark chocolate or coffee. There might be a low spicy, floral, or herbal hop aroma, but this is subtle and optional depending on the brewery.¹
Flavor: Similar to the aroma. Light to moderate malt flavor, which can have a clean, neutral character to a moderately rich, bread-malty quality. Light to moderate roasted malt flavors can give a bitter-chocolate palate that lasts into the finish, but which are never burnt. Medium-low to medium bitterness, which can linger in the aftertaste.¹
The Schwarzbier originated in Germany, and may be the oldest continuously brewed beer style in the world.⁵ The true origin of this beer style is “a bit sketchy”¹ but here is what we know:
To examine the history of the Schwarzbier, we first must look at the beginning of the German lager tradition. In the early 1400s, brewers in Bavaria started storing their beer in cold caves at the base of the Alps to stop it from being ruined by the heat of the summer months. They observed that “something about cold aging had given the beer a special keeping power, even when it warmed up.”⁶ Soon after this revelation, brewers created their own cavelike cellars in closer proximity to their breweries, and allowed the beer to ferment there in addition to being stored in them.
One piece of history that I find interesting is that in 1553, Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria became worried about declining beer quality. His solution? Outlawing brewing beer during the summer months.⁶ This ban encouraged an even further exploration of fermenting beer in cold temperatures, and yeast that fermented at warm temperatures (what we know as ale yeast) disappeared and had been replaced with yeast that liked the cold (what we know as lager yeast.)
This is where the history of the Schwarzbier beaches a little murky. We know it was born early in German lager tradition, but the where and when are unclear. Fast forward a few centuries, and the Schwarzbier style had all but died out, with the exception of the town of Bad Köstritz in what at the time was East Germany.⁶ Its unknownness quickly changed with Germany’s reunification in 1990.⁷ Soon it swept across Germany and then the world. Renowned beer writer Garrett Oliver shares that, “The Japanese brewers Sapporo and Asahi make very similar beers” and were probably inspired by the German Schwarzbier. He supports this theory by pointing out that, “most older Asian breweries were originally started by German monasteries, and it is likely that the monastic breweries brought this style of beer to Japan with them.”⁶
Garrett Oliver also points out that in modern times, “American craft brewers have taken note of this obscure beer style and started to produce their own Schwarzbier” and that “many more Schwarzbiers are now being brewed in the United States than in Germany.”⁶ In my research, I found many sources that specifically pointed out the popularity of Schwarzbier in Utah, because the beer style has good flavor even when brewed at a lower alcohol percentage.
Despite being dark in color, with its medium-light to medium body, moderate to moderately high carbonation, and an alcohol range of 4.4-5.4% ABV¹, the Schwarzbier is one refreshing beer. Then consider the roasted malts that drive the flavor,⁶ and know that this beer is a great, fun food pairing beer.
The Brewmaster’s Table shares that Schwarzbier is very tasty with blackened food – think steak, Cajun blackened chicken, and pork chops. It also states that the bitter chocolate flavors of the beer make it a nice partner for traditional Mexican mole sauces, which are, “austere and complex rather than sweet.” Additionally the book highlights how well it goes with Cajun cooking and other spicy food, because, “the clean roast flavors can cut through it all and help meld the disparate flavors on the palate.” The Brewers Association specifically suggests pairing Schwarzbier with mushroom strudel, Munster-style cheese, or fruit tarts.²
Our beer is an extra special take on the Schwarzbier. It was brewed as a traditional German-Style Schwarzbier, but then lagered it in an oak foeder for 3.5 months. A foeder, (pronounced FOOD-er) is a really, really large barrel, typically oak, used to age wine and beer.⁸ Here at Stormcloud we have two foeders – one at the brewery that we use to focus on clean lagers, and the other at our Lakehouse Ales Project which we’ve intentionally introduced microbes to in order to create sour and funky beer. The Schwarzbier was lagered in our “clean” foeder. Our Co-Owner and Head Brewer Brian Confer discusses the beer stating, “the subtle dark malt character combined with soft oak make this a deliciously unique beer.”
¹ Strong, Gordon, and Kristen England, editors. “8B Schwarzbier.” Beer Judge Certification Style Guidelines. 2015 ed., BJCP, Inc., 2015, p. 15.
² Brewers Association. “German-Style Schwarzbier.” The Guide to Craft Beer. Brewers Publications®, 2019, p. 33.
³ German Beer Styles Course. 2nd ed., Chicago, Cicerone Certification Program, 2018, pp. 38-39. Road to Cicerone.
⁴ Bernstein, Joshua M. The Complete Beer Course. New York, Sterling Epicure, 2013, pp. 57-58.
⁵ Carr, Nick. “Schwarzbier: The Black Beer Hiding Behind The Scenes.” Kegerator.com, Build with Ferguson, 19 June 2015, learn.kegerator.com/schwarzbier/.
⁶ Oliver, Garrett. The Brewmaster’s Table. HarperCollins, 2003, pp. 1235-238; 279-281.
⁷ Oliver, Garrett, editor. “schwarzbier.” The Oxford Companion to Beer. 1st ed., Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 718-719.
⁸ “Foeder (FOOD-er) For Thought!” Dechutes Brewery, 19 Mar. 2015, deschutesbrewery.com/foeder-food-er-thought/.
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. Cloudspotter members.)
Here at Stormcloud Brewing Company, we currently have an exciting new beer on tap – our Londonesque Porter. This beer is styled after the historical British-Style Brown Porter, but with a tasty Stormcloud twist: Belgian yeast and Michigan hops. The Oxford Companion to Beer describes porter as,“a type of dark beer that first saw life in the 1700s, built London’s greatest breweries, slaked the thirst of America’s revolution-minded colonists, and then traveled the world, morphing as it went to meet the changing needs of time and place.”¹ The Complete Beer Course also states that, “Great Britain’s porter [was the] the launching pad for every dark brew.”² Since the porter has done so much, I want to share with you a bit more about it.
It all began in London in the 1700s, when the city’s water was such that it favored the production of brown rather than pale beers.³ These early beers were simply referred to as brown beer, for which several varieties of recipes still exist.¹ Faced with economic challenges, brewers deviated from these recipes for ones with barley malted over wood fires – because coal was taxed and wood was not.³ Unfortunately for them, London’s beer drinkers still preferred the old brown beer, so brewers of this new style were forced to buy pale and stale beer to blend with their existing ale.³ This beer was known as “three threads,” and grew in popularity. It was only a matter of time until someone figured out how to make a single beer with the same profile as these three blended ones. Zymurgy magazine shares that, “according to a legend that has become dubious historical fact, the beer that became known as porter was first brewed by Ralph Harwood, owner of Bell Brewhouse in Shoreditch in the East End of London.”³ According to The Complete Beer Course, “Londoners lapped it up, especially the hardworking Porters who hoofed heavy freight off ships and ferried parcels and merchants’ goods around town”² — which is exactly how this beer got its name. Porter created a commercial industry that enabled beer to be made in such quantities that production costs were cut, generating new fortunes for the new breed of brewing entrepreneurs.³ It was such a popular ale that it is considered the first mass-produced commercial beer.¹ One example of how big these porter batches were: once a vat’s corroded hoops suddenly broke free, sending more than 200,000 gallons of porter gushing out, destroying homes and killing eight people.² In modern America, you usually see two dark beer styles that are similar – porter and stout. According to The Oxford Companion to Beer, “some porters were brewed stronger, either for home or for export. These particularly rich beers were referred to as ‘stout porters,’ and it is generally accepted that the most full-bodied and stout porters served as the genesis of stout as a somewhat operate beer style.”¹
Color: The Brewers Association’s book The Guide to Craft Beer states that the color range for the English-Style Brown Porter should be between 20 and 35 SRM.⁴ (See image below for reference.) Beer writer Joshua M. Bernstein calls their color “the darker end of the color spectrum: the deep, dark brown of a farmer’s muddy boots or the dyed black locks of a goth.”² I tend to think of the color as something more romantic -say dark chocolate fondue, or the sparkling brown eyes of someone you love. Our Londonesque Porter lands right at 25 SRM.
Aroma: The Beer Judge Certification Program 2015 Style Guidelines assert that the aroma, “may have a chocolate quality” and may also be “caramelly, nutty, toffee-like and/or sweet.”⁵ When doing a tasting of the Londonesque with one our brewers, we noticed gentle wafts reminiscent of baker’s chocolate as well as notes of dark coffee, caramel, and an ever-so-subtle toffee scent.
Flavor:The Guide to Craft Beer suggests that English-Style Brown Porters have a similar flavor and aroma saying they have “caramel and chocolate.”⁴ They also mention a “low to medium hop bitterness” and state that the IBU (International Bitterness Units) should range between 20-30.⁴ Our Londonesque Porter is 30 IBU. The Oxford Companion to Beer describes the flavor as, “predominant notes of rich chocolate as well as hints of coffee, caramel [and] nuts.”¹ During our tasting we picked up on a delightful swirl of coffee and caramel, with a dark chocolate backbone and dry finish.
Pairing beer with food has been one of the favorite parts of may craft beer journey. I love how well flavors can play together and enhance certain ingredients, as well as cause tastes to dance across the palate. With the British-Style Brown Porter, specifically our Londonesque, I turned to some experts for advice.
The Brewers Association recommends roasted or grilled meats, Gruyere cheese, and chocolate peanut butter cookies.⁴ Brewmaster and food pairing expert Garrett Oliver goes into greater detail, recommending several dishes. In addition to grilled meats, he states that, “grilled vegetables on a skewer will team up with this beer, the smoky sweetness of the veggies latching onto the roast in the beer.”⁶ Oliver also shares that, “Good sweet Italian sausages are delicious with porter, but venison sausages are even better.”⁶ Craving a Rueben? You’re in luck! The porter pairs well with “a Reuben sandwich or almost anything on pumpernickel bread, which features harmoniously chocolaty flavors.”⁶ Last but not least, when it comes to dessert, “especially those made with chocolate, porter can really shine.”⁶
¹ Oliver, Garrett, editor. “porter.” The Oxford Companion to Beer. 1st ed., Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 660-64
² Bernstein, Joshua M. The Complete Beer Course. New York, Sterling Epicure, 2013, pp. 175-77.
³ Protz, Roger. “Porter: The Granddaddy of British brown Beers.” Zymurgy, Jan. 2002, pp. 20-25.
⁴ Brewers Association. “English-Style Brown Porter.” The Guide to Craft Beer. Brewers Publications®, 2019, p. 84.
⁵ Strong, Gordon, and Kristen England, editors. “13C. English Porter.” Beer Judge Certification Style Guidelines. 2015 ed., BJCP, Inc., 2015, p. 25.
⁶ Oliver, Garrett. The Brewmaster’s Table. HarperCollins, 2003, pp. 138-39.
As many of you know, I am an individual with bipolar. A lot of people ask me what it’s like, and I end up fumbling to give some sort of generic answer. I’ve decided to sit down and share with you a more thought out, intimate perspective of what it’s like. I’m sharing not because I want you to feel bad for me, but because I want to normalize mental illness and #EndTheStigma.
HIGHS (also known as MANIA) The highs are the best feeling I’ve ever had, or so it feels. It’s like a drug – pure euphoria, bliss, thrill, buzz, exhilaration. The colors are brighter, the tastes are enhanced. Every song is meaningful and the lyrics deserve to be shouted. Every joke is gut-wrenchingly hilarious. I believe my thoughts are brilliant, and they rapidly race out of my mouth. I don’t care what others think, though I’m sure everyone finds me endearing. Creativity gushes from me, and I must start every project that comes to mind – and so, so many come to mind. I dance everywhere I go. This all sounds great, right? It is, until it goes too high and turns toxic. Easily distracted, forgetting to take my insulin, not sleeping, extreme spending sprees without being able to afford it, promiscuity and unfaithfulness, reckless driving, risky choices, binge drinking – these are just a few of the dangerous behaviors I’ve exhibited. These are bad enough, but then what follows is even worse – the lows. Rock bottom.
LOWS (also known as DEPRESSION) Depression for me is a deep fog. A shroud of unending pain and an indescribable sadness. A dangerous hopelessness as I grapple for any means to an end of my misery. It’s wondering how everyone else around me can function so highly, while I struggle with the most menial tasks. It’s not that I “lack motivation” to do things – I cannot do them. I can’t get out of bed, much less eat or change my clothes or shower. I struggle to form full sentences. I can’t concentrate on books or movies, and even if I could they wouldn’t bring me any semblance of joy. I can’t respond to messages or phone calls, and the guilt makes me feel even worse. When I have the energy, I cry.
MIXED EPISODES (the worst of the highs and lows) I feel like this is a part of bipolar that people don’t talk as much about. It’s also something I’ve really struggled with on my journey. My mixed episodes present themselves with rapid mood swings and extreme anger. In one moment I will be laughing, the next I’ll be screaming and breaking or throwing things. I can enter a state of pure range, where I either hurt the people I love or myself. When I have self harmed, it has been during mixed episodes where I am mad at myself and feel I deserve it. My words are venomous, and I know just what to say to hurt people the most. The simplest comment can make me irate. And since it comes in rapid mood swings, I then come down and collapse into guilt, which may be followed by euphoric happiness. These episodes are the hardest for me.
Most of my life I’ve known that I struggled with depression. The highs were easier to conceal, just part of my A.D.D. or my quirky personality – which is why for so long my bipolar went undiagnosed. It wasn’t until my first stay in a psych hospital that it started to get pieced together. It has been a long, treacherous journey. Damaging my family, broken friendships and relationships, a lost job, and a whole spattering of meds. But the journey has truly been worth it. With many mental illnesses, you will never “get over it” – you just learn to manage it. And you have the realistic perspective that you may relapse. Right now, at this point in my life, I am happy to say I am stable, have a great med cocktail, have a phenomenal care team, and an incredible support system. Thank you to so many of YOU who are part of my support system. I greatly appreciate you.
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. Cloudspotter members.)
Time to pull out your beer steins and dust off your lederhosen – it’s time for Oktoberfest! As seasoned beer drinkers, I’m sure you’re all familiar with Oktoberfest, but I wanted to give you a more in-depth lowdown.
Oktoberfest is a two-week long celebration that takes place in Munich, Germany (Bavaria’s capital). This year it would have started Saturday, September 19, but is cancelled due to COVID-19. While Oktoberfest has largely become associated with beer, it is so much more than that! It boasts the title of “world’s largest folk festival” – and for good reason. According to The Telegraph, “in addition to eating, drinking and dancing, visitors can enjoy colourful parades, a variety of fairground rides, and for those not themselves in traditional Bavarian gear, admire those that are.”¹ The main festivities are located in a meadow just outside of the city’s epicenter, and hosts millions of people every year. There are massive tents set up, “with colourful façades, long wooden tables and benches, and frequently on more than one level”¹ with some holding “between 5,000 and 11,000 people, both inside and in the attached exterior beer gardens.”² There are many types of cuisine, but the most well known are traditional Bavarian fare, including sausages, chickens, giant pretzels and wild oxen. To keep up with the times, there are even vegan options!² Don’t think for a minute that this is an adult-only affair – there are plenty of activities for folks of all ages. Every Tuesday of Oktoberfest is Family Day, and there is a family section (called Familienplatzl) that is open all two weeks.³
The first Oktoberfest took place in 1810, and with few exceptions has happened annually ever since. The inaugural Oktoberfest wasn’t a festival at all – it was a wedding reception for Bavaria’s Crown Prince Ludwig and Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen, complete with feasting, drinking, and a horse race!⁴ The celebration was so well received that the locals wanted more the next year. That year the festivities were sponsored by the Bavarian Agriculture Association (Landwirtschaftlicher Verein in Bayern) as they recognized it as an excellent venue to highlight their wares. As the popularity increased, the economic gains for Munich became obvious, and it became an annual event.⁵
It is a common belief that there has only been one style of beer served throughout the history of Oktoberfest, but there is an abundance of historical evidence to counter that claim. According to the Oxford Companion to Beer, “In the first 60 or so years the then popular Bavarian Dunkel seemed to have dominated.” Then, in 1872, when a brewery ran out of their Dunkel, they served a much stronger Bock (18°P at a probable 8% ABV), and sold it at premium prices.⁶ These Bock-strength beers were popular leading up until World War I, after which the strength of the “standard” Oktoberfest beer fluctuated (between 4-9% ABV.)⁷ For decades after the World Wars, Märzenbier was THE beer style served at Oktoberfest. This style was traditionally brewed in March and lagered in cold caves over the summer, making it perfectly timed to serve late September at Oktoberfest.⁸ According to the BJCP Style Guidelines, American craft versions of Oktoberfest are generally based on the Märzenbier style, despite it not being what is currently served at Oktoberfest. Since 1990, the majority of beer served at Oktoberfest is a style called Festbier. In comparison it is less intense and less richly toasted than a Märzen. Festbier is a lighter, more drinkable but still malty version that (according to the head brewer at Paulaner) they wanted to be “more poundable.”⁸
To read more about these different beer styles, check out the Beer Judge Certification Program Style Guidelines here.
•According to German and European Union regulations, no beers except those brewed by the authorized large breweries of Munich are allowed to be labeled “Oktoberfest.”⁶
•Oktoberfest draws about 6 million tourists every year.⁴
•7 million liters of local beer are poured each year.⁴
•A liter of beer costs between $11.48-$12 (US dollars)¹
•In 1854, organizers were forced to cancel Oktoberfest in the face of cholera outbreaks.⁴
•Over 200,000 pairs of sausage are consumed.¹
•In 2018, Lufthansa (Germany’s largest airline) had their flight crews dressed in traditional Bavarian garb and serve fresh draft beer mid-flight.¹⁰
•Some of the most ridiculous things to land in the Oktoberfest lost and found include a pet grasshopper, a set of dentures, a segway, a fishing rod, a garden gnome, and a dachshund called ‘Wasti.”¹
Whether you’re going to Oktoberfest in Munich or a version of it stateside, It doesn’t hurt to know some lingo!
Wiesn – means “the meadow;” what Oktoberfest is called locally.⁶
Masskrug – iconic Oktoberfest 1 liter glasses.⁶
Dirndl – a traditional alpine dress which was once only worn by the proudest of Bavarians. Today, it is popular among all nationalities at Oktoberfest. A dirndl tied on the left means you are available; on the right shows you’re taken; in the center means virgin; and in the back means widowed or waitress.⁹
Lederhosen – traditional leather pants (with or without suspenders.) Though most Germans would never don a pair of these leather trousers, some Bavarians wear them year-round.⁹
Prost – Cheers!⁹
O’zapft is!– “It is tapped” – the phrase uttered by Munich’s mayor to mark the opening of the first beer barrel and the commencement of the drinking.¹
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. mug club members.)
I want to share with you about another traditional, Belgian-style beer – the Witbier. Witbiers are described as refreshing, elegant, tasty, moderate-strength wheat-based ales.¹ Cheers!
The Witbier is a 400-year-old Belgian Beer Style.¹ In Flemish, the word “wit” means “white”, and signifies a beer made with wheat.² According to Garrett Oliver, Brewmaster of the Brooklyn Brewery, in the 1500s, “spices from far-flung lands started to become available in Europe” and quickly found their way into European cooking – and brewing.³ The Witbier is a relic from this movement, often incorporating one or more spices into the brew, popularly coriander or Curacao orange peel⁴ but sometimes ingredients like chamomile, cumin, cinnamon, and Grains of Paradise.¹ Records show multiple variations of white beer brewed in the Flanders region of Belgium because wheat grew especially well there, and unmalted grains were cheaper for brewers to use than malt. Early Belgian Witbier was usually brewed during the summer months and meant to be consumed quickly as a summer refresher. This beer began to be made year-round and became quite popular in Belgium – that is until World War I. The war forced wheat to be rationed for bread making only.² By the 1950s, Witbier had nearly gone extinct – “a victim of wars, fashionable lagers, and brewery consolidations.”³ Fortunately, a man named Pierre Celis changed it all. Celis, a milkman and former brewery employee, held a certain fondness for Witbier, and set about reviving it.² He started a new brewery called De Kluis, which was dedicated to creating a Witbier called Hoegaarden, named for the town where the brewery was located.⁴ It became quite popular, and inspired other Belgium as well as international breweries around the world to brew Witbiers.
Witbiers have light, grainy, spicy wheat aromas, often with a bit of tartness. Moderate perfumey coriander, often with complex herbal, spicy, or peppery notes may appear in the background. You’ll also get moderate zesty, citrusy-orange fruitiness.¹
The Witbier’s appearance is very pale straw to very light gold in color. The SRM, or Standard Reference Method is a way brewers measure a beers color, and Witbier should range between 2-4.¹ See SRM chart below.
Additionally, it may appear hazy from the wheat and oats.²
With the Witbier, the mouthfeel tends to have medium body, smoothness and light creaminess from the unmalted wheat and oats.¹
The flavor traits of the Witbier are similar to its aroma – pleasant malty-sweet grain flavor (often with a honey and/or vanilla character²) and an orange fruitiness. Herbal-spicy flavors are common and subtly balanced. There may be a low spicy-earth hop flavor, but it won’t get in the way of the spices. Additionally, hop bitterness will be medium-low, and won’t interfere with the refreshing flavors of fruit and spice.¹
Some brewers add another traditional touch to their Witbier by conducting a limited lactic fermentation, blending in a portion of soured beer, or adding lactic acid to enhance the tart crispness of the beer.²
The book The Brewmaster’s Table³ suggests several excellent food pairings with the Witbier. Author and Brewmaster Garrett Oliver states that, “as nice as some other beers are with salads, witbier has to be the overall winner.” He does caution against using dressing that is overly sweet, and suggests that vinaigrettes are the best way to go.
Later, Oliver says, “at brunch, Witbier tastes better than the best orange juice you’ve ever had.” He continues to say that “the orange aromatics awaken the senses and then provide a beautiful counterpoint to egg dishes” and “bacon and sausages will swoon before its quenching acidity.”
Another pairing he calls “a real star” is Witbier and fish, because it is light enough to complement “even the most delicate fish” while with stronger dishes it “lifts the oils and brightens flavors without disturbing the essential qualities of the fish.”
I hope this post offered you some insight to yet another wonderful beer style. Keep your eyes peeled, Stormcloud Brewing Company may be releasing a limited small-batch Witbier in the very near future!
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. mug club members.)
To quote the Oxford Companion to Beer, “Belgium is to beer what Cuba is to cigars and France is to wine.”¹ On that note, I wanted to share with you some information about two traditional Belgian-inspired brews – the Dubbel and the Tripel.
The Belgian monastic brewing tradition started long ago, stemming as far back as the Middle Ages. Many monasteries followed the Rule of St. Benedict of 530 A.D., which told monks how to live a spiritual life and run a monastery. One of the Benedictine values required that monasteries be self-sufficient. This led monks to create wares they could sell – some made bread, some made cheese, some sold eggs, and some made beer!²
The beer of these early monasteries tasted quite different than the modern Belgian beers we know and love³ – and this is largely because of the destruction many of them faced throughout history. Nearly all the monasteries in Belgium were closed or destroyed during the French Revolution in the 1790s. Many were rebuilt, but were once again demolished during World War I. After rebuilding following the war, beer styles such as the Dubbel and Tripel began to emerge. These styles helped return monastery breweries to prominence, but most had to rebuild again after World War II.² One thing that’s certain, the Belgian brewing tradition is resilient!
The Dubbel and Tripel are styles that emerged from what is known as the Trappist tradition. Currently, there are only seven breweries in the world that can legally call their beer Trappist – meaning they are brewed on monastery grounds under the supervision of monks.¹ You may also hear the term Abbey beer, which means while not Trappist, it is brewed in association with an actually monastery.² Because of these specifications, you won’t hear secular breweries calling themselves Trappist or Abbey, even when they make Dubbels or Tripels. Out of respect for this tradition, you’ll often hear these style of beers brewed in America called “Belgian-inspired” or “Belgian-style.”
Discussing the Dubbel and Tripel may lead you to wondering, is there such thing as a Singel? What about a Quadrupel? And what do the names mean?
Yes, there is such thing as a Belgian Singel, but “they remain an elusive beast that rarely leaves the walls of the few monasteries where it’s made.”⁴ As far as Quadrupels go, you may know them under a more familiar name – the Belgian Dark Strong Ale (like Stormcloud’s The Farthest Shore.) Quadrupels and Dark Strongs are pretty universally accepted as synonymous names for the same style.²
As far as these numerical names go, it’s not as simple as one may think – historians can’t seem to agree on where the names come from. Not only that, but there isn’t an exact mathematical relationship between the styles.⁴ Generally, but not always, the alcohol content goes up with each style. They do not double or triple in alcohol content as the names might imply, but instead the average alcohol content goes up by about 1.5-2.0% ABV.
Dubbels are described by the Beer Judge Certification Program 2015 Style Guidelines as “A deep reddish-copper, moderately strong, malty complex Trappist ale with rich malty flavors, dark or dried fruit esters, and light alcohol blended together in a malty presentation that still finishes fairly dry.”⁵ It lists the ABV being somewhere between 6-7.6% and the IBUs being between 15-25 with a low perceived bitterness. Dubbel’s color can range between light amber to dark amber.²
In Dubbels you’ll often find the flavors of caramel, brown sugar, dark rum, raison, plum, or dark cherry.² The Brewers Association recommends pairing this beer style with apple-smoked saysages, washed-rind cheeses, and milk chocolate.⁶ Trust me, I know our Dubbel (B., Sirius) is an excellent food beer – it goes with just about everything on our menu!
Tripels are described by the Beer Judge Certification Program 2015 Style Guidelines as “A pale, somewhat spicy, dry, strong Trappist ale with a pleasant rounded malt flavor and firm bitterness. Quite aromatic, with spicy, fruity, and light alcohol notes combining with the supportive clean malt character to produce a surprisingly drinkable beverage considering the high alcohol level.”⁵ It lists the ABV being between 7.5-9.5% and the IBUs between 20-40 with moderate perceived bitterness. Tripel’s tend to be light gold to gold in color.² I always remember that Dubbels are darker than Tripels through alliteration.
In Tripels, you’ll often find esters that produce flavors such as orange, lemon, apricot, peach, pear, or banana.² A few food pairing suggestion include roasted turkey, triple creme cheese, and caramelized banana creme brûlée.⁶
I hope this blog post taught you a little something you didn’t know about two traditional Belgian-inspired brews. Now all you need is to order a B., Sirius Dubbel or 228 Tripel to go! Cheers!
References for this blog post:
¹Oliver, Garrett, editor. The Oxford Companion to Beer. Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 1-3.
²De Baets, Yvan, editor. Belgian Beer Styles Course. Cicerone Certification Program, 2020, pp. 67-73. Road to Cicerone®.
³Mulder, Roel. “The Original Belgium Abbey Beers.” Zymurgy, Mar. 2020, pp. 42-43.
⁴Reis, Mike. “A Beginner’s Guide to Belgian Beer Styles.” Serious Eats, edited by Niki Achitoff-Gray, Serious Eats Inc., 4 Mar. 2014, drinks.seriouseats.com/2014/03/guide-to-belgian-beer-styles-what-is-dubbel-quad-saison-wit-lambic-gueuze.html.
Right before our temporary closure due to COVID-19, we at Stormcloud Brewing Company had just put on tap an incredibly unique beer called a Sahti. I would love to share with you what I learned about this style!
According to The Oxford Companion to Beer, the Sahti is “a farmhouse beer style indigenous to Finland” and “is one of the oldest beer types still brewed today.”¹ It is traditionally made with rye and juniper,² and often with baker’s yeast¹ instead of brewer’s yeast. According to the BJCP Style Guidelines, “the juniper acts a bit like hops in the balance and flavor.”² Sahti’s also often have a banana-clove character, but it is completely dependent on what yeast is used. Since the Sahti is a Farmhouse Ale, it can vary greatly by ingredients, taste, and location brewed – and is adjustable according to the brewer.¹
Sahti is considered an Historical Beer style, and for good reason – casks of Sahti were discovered on a sunken Viking ship dated back to the 9th century, and “some historians even claim ancient beer styles like Sahti were the motivation behind developed agriculture in Scandinavia.”³ According to beer historian Mika Laitinen, the fact that it has survived the arrival of distilled alcohol, the onset of the era of cheap industrial beer, and prohibition is thoroughly impressive. He believes that “without its rich and unique taste, the traditional would surely have been dead by now.”⁴
The word sahti come from the Swedish word saft, meaning “juice” or “sap.” One thing I found particularly entertaining was that the Finnish-speaking brewers would intentionally refer to farmhouse ale as “juice” to mislead and evade the Swedish-speaking taxmen.⁴
The photo below is a woman brewing Sahti in Karvia, Finland around 1930. Aside from a few details, it is a similar setup to what brewers would have used in the Iron Age.⁴ Prior to the existence of metal cauldrons, brewers used wooden vessels which could not be heated to a boil over a fire. Instead, many Sahtis were not boiled, and those that were used hot stones put directly into the liquid.⁴ Additionally, past and present Sahti masters do not use thermometers, but instead measure the temperature using their fingers and the tip of their elbow.¹
Sahti was traditionally served in a large wooden vessel called haarikka, which was intended to be shared.⁴ These were most often passed around and consumed in the sauna.¹ You can see photos of haarikkas below.
If you haven’t yet tried a Sahti, I hope this has inspired you to do so and take a sip of history! On that note, I’d like to leave you with an old Finnish saying:
“In drinking sati, the feet get drunk first, and then the head.”⁴
References for this blog post:
¹Oliver, Garrett, editor. The Oxford Companion to Beer. Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 709-711.
As many of you know, I am running for election to the American Homebrewers Association Governing Committee. Please consider voting for me! If you’d like to get to know me a little better, check out the video below, followed by my Candidate Statement. The election ends March 31st, so go vote now!
In the video below I answer 4 questions: What’s the most interesting thing you’ve ever brewed?
What beer are you most proud of brewing?
What’s your favorite thing about working in the brewing industry?
Do you have experience with other nonprofits?
My Candidate Statement:
I have been homebrewing since 2009 and professionally involved in the craft beer industry since 2011. I first got into homebrewing through a local bottle shop that also sold homebrewing equipment. I bought beer from them so frequently that they suggested I try making it – so I did! I fell in love with the process, as well as the rich history and community that goes along with brewing. As a college student, I secured a graphic design internship with Grand Rapids Brewing Company where I developed general knowledge of the brewing industry and contributed to label and tap handle designs. In August 2012 I was one of the flagship Taproom Servers for Perrin Brewing Company, and soon also assisted as Menu Graphics Supervisor. This position instilled in me a deep desire to teach others about beer, which led me to pursue multiple veins of beer education – both as a student and a teacher.
I am currently in the University of Vermont’s Business of Craft Beer program, and am studying for my second level of Cicerone certification. I’ve also had the opportunity to lead homebrewing classes through a local nonprofit’s Fermentation Guild, and I develop monthly beer education pieces for the mug club members at my current employer, Stormcloud Brewing Company, where I am the Marketing Assistant and Membership Coordinator. Additionally, I am very familiar with the nonprofit world – I founded a nonprofit called Drink Beach Beer, and currently serve on the board of the nonprofit Cognition, a local Science and Discovery Center.
I believe my experience in the nonprofit sector as well as my time as a homebrewer and beer educator would make me a great fit for the American Homebrewers Association Governing Committee. Not to mention, I drink a heck of a lot of craft beer!
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. mug club members.)
A foeder, (pronounced FOOD-er) is a really, really large barrel, typically oak, used to age wine and beer.¹ Not only are they for imparting strong oak flavors into the beer, they also allow a slow addition of oxygen into the barrel over time; which changes the profile and flavor of the beer. The shape of a foeder may trend towards ovular or more cylindrical than the standard barrel shape. ²
Foeders have been used in Belgium and other European countries for hundreds of years, and are now growing in popularity in the US in the craft beer community, for sour beer or other traditional Belgian-style beer.
Our first foeder was purchased as the next step in developing Stormcloud’s sour program. Sour beer is an age-old Belgian tradition of intentionally introducing microbes (yes, sometimes even ‘wild’ microbes) into the beer to create a variety of flavors – sour, tart, funky, earthy, leathery – and so many more!
We purchased our foeder from Foeder Crafters of America – the only maker of foeders in the United States.³ It was built by hand from American white oak. The wood is air dried and exposed to the elements for 2 years, and once the foeder is built it is steamed for at least a week. Below you can see a photo of our foeder right after it was built, before it was shipped to us.
Our second foeder, which has been christened The Collaborator is currently being used for “clean” (not sour) wood-aged beer. As its name implies, these beers will be made in collaboration with other breweries. Our first beer in The Collaborator was brewed with our good friends from The Filling Station Microbrewery (see photo below.)
The collaboration beer was a Helles Lager, and the release date has yet to be determined – it all depends on how it ages in the oak and when the brewers taste it and think it’s ready.
Bon Appétit magazine describes sour beer as “a style loved by brew nerds but easily appreciated by anyone. An acquired taste, but one we think is well worth cultivating.”⁴ I couldn’t agree more, it is certainly a taste worth cultivating! Though I’ll do my best to explain the nuances of sour beer below, talking terroir of beer requires a little more show than tell.⁵ When well made, sour beer can be among the most complex and refreshing of beers, terrific with food and easily pushing the boundaries of what the modern drinker thinks of as “beer.”⁶
Sour beer, put simply, is a sour tasting beer whose flavor is attained by the introduction of bacteria and/or wild yeast.
Before diving too far in, I want to address the name – SOUR beer. You heard it here folks – NOT ALL SOUR BEER IS ACTUALLY SOUR. Sour beer is an umbrella term that can encompass a spectrum of flavor styles – tart, fruity, red wine-like, funky, sweet, tangy, leathery, citrus…and the list goes on and on. In the modern American brewing industry, there is much discussion about replacing the term or dividing up the general category of sour beer. Jeffers Richardson, director of Firestone Walker’s Barrelworks wild beer facility discusses this by saying “That term, much to my chagrin, is not really instructive. It assumes a beer should be very tart and very sour, and yet we encompass everything. It doesn’t do the category justice.”⁵ So if the term “sour” has a negative connotation in your mind, the first thing to know is that the name sour beer can mean so much more than that.
Before refrigeration and our modern knowledge of sanitation, nearly, if not all beer was to some degree sour. This is primarily due to poorly understood, often naturally occurring bacteria.⁷ People usually avoided brewing during warm weather, when the bacteria and wild yeast was even more likely to produce unbearable acidic and vinegar-like flavors. When brewed in the colder seasons intentionally, traditional sour beer styles are usually produced by aging beer in wooden barrels and involve the attempt to control acidity levels and create agreeable flavor.⁶ You can read more about these traditional styles and their history in the next section.
As craft brewing took off in the United States, there emerged a new generation of brewers who aspired to create increasingly unique and flavorful beers. Many of these breweries have taken inspiration from classically sour Belgian styles. Here at Stormcloud we’ve described ourselves “a small brewery crafting ales within the time-honored Belgian brewing tradition of ignoring time-honored brewing traditions” – and this is an excellent way to describe the evolution of sour beer in the US. Not content with mimicking Belgian sour beers, American brewers have started to develop what might be termed “new world” sour beers.⁶ Due to this evolution of the sour beer style, there is no agreed-upon style guidelines and are yet to be classified in any particular category. The Oxford Companion to Beer says that “this, of course, is part of the fun for the brewers who are making them.”⁶
Berliner Weisse: A very pale, refreshing, low-alcohol German wheat beer with a clean lactic sourness and a very high carbonation level. Referred by Napoleon’s troops in 1809 as “the Champagne of the north.”⁸
Flanders Red Ale: An indigenous beer of the West Flanders region of Belgium. Sour, fruity, red wine-like Belgian-style ale with interesting supportive malt flavors and fruit complexity. The dry finish and tannin completes the mental image of a fine red wine. The beer is aged for up to two years, often in huge oaken barrels which contain the resident bacteria necessary to sour the beer. It is common in Belgium to blend old beer with young to balance the sourness and acidity found in aged beer.⁸
Oud Bruin: A malty, fruity, aged, somewhat sour Belgian-style brown ale. An “old ale” tradition, indigenous to the East Flanders region of Belgium, which has roots back to the 1600s. Historically brewed as a “provision beer” that would develop some sourness as it aged. While Flanders red beers are aged in oak, the brown beers are warm aged in stainless steel.⁸
Lambic: A fairly sour, often moderately funky wild Belgian wheat beer with sourness taking the place of hop bitterness in the balance. Traditionally spontaneously fermented in the Brussels area and served uncarbonated.⁸
Fruit Lambic: A complex, fruity, pleasantly sour, wild wheat ale fermented by a variety of Belgian microbiota, and showcasing the fruit contributions blended with the wild character. The type of fruit can sometimes be hard to identify as fermented and aged fruit characteristics can seem different from the more recognizable fresh fruit aromas and flavors.⁸
Gueuze: A complex, pleasantly sour but balanced wild Belgian wheat beer that is highly carbonated and very refreshing. The spontaneous fermentation character can provide a very interesting complexity, with a wide range of wild barnyard, horse blanket, or leather characteristics intermingling with citrusy-fruity flavors and acidity.⁸
Gose: A highly-carbonated, tart and fruity wheat ale with a restrained coriander and salt character and low bitterness. Very refreshing, with bright flavors and high attenuation. Moderate to restrained but noticeable sourness, although historical versions could be very sour.⁸
American-Style Sour Ales: Style guidelines for American-style sours are intentionally nebulous because American brewers are still rewriting the rules. Many are inspired by traditional sour styles, which are used as a jumping off point to experiment with techniques such as hops additions for bittering and aroma, racking sour beers into freshly used wine or spirit barrels, blending together batches, adding adjuncts, or just about anything else they can think of.⁹
In addition to foeder, here are a few other sour beer-related vocabulary that you might like to know.
Lactobacillus & Pediococcus: These are the two main bacteria that contribute to the actual acidity or sourness, in the beer. Skilled brewers of sour beer will blend these bacterial strains carefully, massaging fermentations to create the acid profile they desire in the beer.⁶
Brettanomyces: A wild yeast strain (considered a scourge in most vineyards, though welcomed among many natural winemakers) that is often used in the making of new world sour beers.⁶
Wild Beer: This is an ever-constant debate among brewers, but the term is generally used to describe any beer that displays the earthy characteristics of Brettanomyces yeast strains (or other wild yeast strains), regardless of whether the beer is a light golden ale or a dark stout.⁶
Mixed Culture: Instead of using a single clean yeast strain, brewers intentionally select a combination of different yeasts and often bacteria to work their magic in a fermentation with the goal of creating something new and interesting.¹⁰
Blending: The act of combining two or more beers. Through blending, you can create unique complexity that otherwise you can’t achieve with unblended beer. You can blend a five-year-old version and a one-year-old version of the same recipe for a unique final product, for example; or blend beers made with the same recipe but fermented with two different yeast strains; or blend two or more completely different styles.¹¹
Kettle Souring:(also called quick souring) Souring beer in a steel “kettle” and adding lactobacillus (a bacteria that converts sugar into lactic acid.) While this method is faster and easier than the traditional sour beer method, it loses much of the complexity. ¹²
Spontaneous Fermentation: What happens when a brewer leaves the inoculation (the moment when yeast and bacteria come in contact with the liquid) up to whatever organisms happen to be in the air or on the fruit that they are fermenting.¹³
Coolship: A shallow bed that can be attached to a truck and driven through the surrounding area to inoculate wort with wild yeast.⁵ This past October, we collaborated with Speciation Artisan Ales, brewing wort for their cool ship. (see photos below)
I hope this sour beer primer made you excited to join us on our journey through Stormcloud’s new sour beer project, and give the beer we release a try. Each beer we craft is made to be unique, flavorful, and original. You never know what could become your next favorite beer!
¹ “Foeder (FOOD-er) For Thought!” Dechutes Brewery, 19 Mar. 2015, deschutesbrewery.com/foeder-food-er-thought/.
² Dykstra, Jim. “What is a Foeder?” The Beer Connoisseur, 8 Sept. 2016, beerconnoisseur.com/articles/what-foeder.
³ Shaw, Iain. “America’s Only Foeder Crafter Is Changing How We Make and Drink Wild Beers.” VinePair, edited by Erica Duecy, VinePair Inc., 11 Mar. 2019, vinepair.com/articles/american-foeder-sour-beer-wild-ale/.
⁴ Bernstein, Joshua M. “Sour Beer Primer: How (and Why) to Drink These Funky Wild Ales.” Bon Appétit, Condé Nast, 26 Feb. 2014, bonappetit.com/drinks/beer/slideshow/sour-beer-primer.
⁵ Roth, Bryan. “A Culture of Confusion — The Process, Vernacular, and Challenge of Selling “Sour” Beer.” Good Beer Hunting, edited by Austin L. Ray, 5 Apr. 2018, goodbeerhunting.com/blog/2018/4/4/a-culture-of-confusion-the-process-vernacular-and-challenge-of-selling-sour-beer.
⁶ Oliver, Garrett, editor. The Oxford Companion to Beer. 1 ed., Oxford University Press, 2012.
⁷ DeBenedetti, Christian. “A Brief History of Sour Beer.” The New Yorker, 26 July 2013, newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/a-brief-history-of-sour-beer.