As many of you know, I am an individual with bipolar. A lot of people ask me what it’s like, and I end up fumbling to give some sort of generic answer. I’ve decided to sit down and share with you a more thought out, intimate perspective of what it’s like. I’m sharing not because I want you to feel bad for me, but because I want to normalize mental illness and #EndTheStigma.
HIGHS (also known as MANIA) The highs are the best feeling I’ve ever had, or so it feels. It’s like a drug – pure euphoria, bliss, thrill, buzz, exhilaration. The colors are brighter, the tastes are enhanced. Every song is meaningful and the lyrics deserve to be shouted. Every joke is gut-wrenchingly hilarious. I believe my thoughts are brilliant, and they rapidly race out of my mouth. I don’t care what others think, though I’m sure everyone finds me endearing. Creativity gushes from me, and I must start every project that comes to mind – and so, so many come to mind. I dance everywhere I go. This all sounds great, right? It is, until it goes too high and turns toxic. Easily distracted, forgetting to take my insulin, not sleeping, extreme spending sprees without being able to afford it, promiscuity and unfaithfulness, reckless driving, risky choices, binge drinking – these are just a few of the dangerous behaviors I’ve exhibited. These are bad enough, but then what follows is even worse – the lows. Rock bottom.
LOWS (also known as DEPRESSION) Depression for me is a deep fog. A shroud of unending pain and an indescribable sadness. A dangerous hopelessness as I grapple for any means to an end of my misery. It’s wondering how everyone else around me can function so highly, while I struggle with the most menial tasks. It’s not that I “lack motivation” to do things – I cannot do them. I can’t get out of bed, much less eat or change my clothes or shower. I struggle to form full sentences. I can’t concentrate on books or movies, and even if I could they wouldn’t bring me any semblance of joy. I can’t respond to messages or phone calls, and the guilt makes me feel even worse. When I have the energy, I cry.
MIXED EPISODES (the worst of the highs and lows) I feel like this is a part of bipolar that people don’t talk as much about. It’s also something I’ve really struggled with on my journey. My mixed episodes present themselves with rapid mood swings and extreme anger. In one moment I will be laughing, the next I’ll be screaming and breaking or throwing things. I can enter a state of pure range, where I either hurt the people I love or myself. When I have self harmed, it has been during mixed episodes where I am mad at myself and feel I deserve it. My words are venomous, and I know just what to say to hurt people the most. The simplest comment can make me irate. And since it comes in rapid mood swings, I then come down and collapse into guilt, which may be followed by euphoric happiness. These episodes are the hardest for me.
Most of my life I’ve known that I struggled with depression. The highs were easier to conceal, just part of my A.D.D. or my quirky personality – which is why for so long my bipolar went undiagnosed. It wasn’t until my first stay in a psych hospital that it started to get pieced together. It has been a long, treacherous journey. Damaging my family, broken friendships and relationships, a lost job, and a whole spattering of meds. But the journey has truly been worth it. With many mental illnesses, you will never “get over it” – you just learn to manage it. And you have the realistic perspective that you may relapse. Right now, at this point in my life, I am happy to say I am stable, have a great med cocktail, have a phenomenal care team, and an incredible support system. Thank you to so many of YOU who are part of my support system. I greatly appreciate you.
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. Cloudspotter members.)
Time to pull out your beer steins and dust off your lederhosen – it’s time for Oktoberfest! As seasoned beer drinkers, I’m sure you’re all familiar with Oktoberfest, but I wanted to give you a more in-depth lowdown.
Oktoberfest is a two-week long celebration that takes place in Munich, Germany (Bavaria’s capital). This year it would have started Saturday, September 19, but is cancelled due to COVID-19. While Oktoberfest has largely become associated with beer, it is so much more than that! It boasts the title of “world’s largest folk festival” – and for good reason. According to The Telegraph, “in addition to eating, drinking and dancing, visitors can enjoy colourful parades, a variety of fairground rides, and for those not themselves in traditional Bavarian gear, admire those that are.”¹ The main festivities are located in a meadow just outside of the city’s epicenter, and hosts millions of people every year. There are massive tents set up, “with colourful façades, long wooden tables and benches, and frequently on more than one level”¹ with some holding “between 5,000 and 11,000 people, both inside and in the attached exterior beer gardens.”² There are many types of cuisine, but the most well known are traditional Bavarian fare, including sausages, chickens, giant pretzels and wild oxen. To keep up with the times, there are even vegan options!² Don’t think for a minute that this is an adult-only affair – there are plenty of activities for folks of all ages. Every Tuesday of Oktoberfest is Family Day, and there is a family section (called Familienplatzl) that is open all two weeks.³
The first Oktoberfest took place in 1810, and with few exceptions has happened annually ever since. The inaugural Oktoberfest wasn’t a festival at all – it was a wedding reception for Bavaria’s Crown Prince Ludwig and Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen, complete with feasting, drinking, and a horse race!⁴ The celebration was so well received that the locals wanted more the next year. That year the festivities were sponsored by the Bavarian Agriculture Association (Landwirtschaftlicher Verein in Bayern) as they recognized it as an excellent venue to highlight their wares. As the popularity increased, the economic gains for Munich became obvious, and it became an annual event.⁵
It is a common belief that there has only been one style of beer served throughout the history of Oktoberfest, but there is an abundance of historical evidence to counter that claim. According to the Oxford Companion to Beer, “In the first 60 or so years the then popular Bavarian Dunkel seemed to have dominated.” Then, in 1872, when a brewery ran out of their Dunkel, they served a much stronger Bock (18°P at a probable 8% ABV), and sold it at premium prices.⁶ These Bock-strength beers were popular leading up until World War I, after which the strength of the “standard” Oktoberfest beer fluctuated (between 4-9% ABV.)⁷ For decades after the World Wars, Märzenbier was THE beer style served at Oktoberfest. This style was traditionally brewed in March and lagered in cold caves over the summer, making it perfectly timed to serve late September at Oktoberfest.⁸ According to the BJCP Style Guidelines, American craft versions of Oktoberfest are generally based on the Märzenbier style, despite it not being what is currently served at Oktoberfest. Since 1990, the majority of beer served at Oktoberfest is a style called Festbier. In comparison it is less intense and less richly toasted than a Märzen. Festbier is a lighter, more drinkable but still malty version that (according to the head brewer at Paulaner) they wanted to be “more poundable.”⁸
To read more about these different beer styles, check out the Beer Judge Certification Program Style Guidelines here.
•According to German and European Union regulations, no beers except those brewed by the authorized large breweries of Munich are allowed to be labeled “Oktoberfest.”⁶
•Oktoberfest draws about 6 million tourists every year.⁴
•7 million liters of local beer are poured each year.⁴
•A liter of beer costs between $11.48-$12 (US dollars)¹
•In 1854, organizers were forced to cancel Oktoberfest in the face of cholera outbreaks.⁴
•Over 200,000 pairs of sausage are consumed.¹
•In 2018, Lufthansa (Germany’s largest airline) had their flight crews dressed in traditional Bavarian garb and serve fresh draft beer mid-flight.¹⁰
•Some of the most ridiculous things to land in the Oktoberfest lost and found include a pet grasshopper, a set of dentures, a segway, a fishing rod, a garden gnome, and a dachshund called ‘Wasti.”¹
Whether you’re going to Oktoberfest in Munich or a version of it stateside, It doesn’t hurt to know some lingo!
Wiesn – means “the meadow;” what Oktoberfest is called locally.⁶
Masskrug – iconic Oktoberfest 1 liter glasses.⁶
Dirndl – a traditional alpine dress which was once only worn by the proudest of Bavarians. Today, it is popular among all nationalities at Oktoberfest. A dirndl tied on the left means you are available; on the right shows you’re taken; in the center means virgin; and in the back means widowed or waitress.⁹
Lederhosen – traditional leather pants (with or without suspenders.) Though most Germans would never don a pair of these leather trousers, some Bavarians wear them year-round.⁹
Prost – Cheers!⁹
O’zapft is!– “It is tapped” – the phrase uttered by Munich’s mayor to mark the opening of the first beer barrel and the commencement of the drinking.¹
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. mug club members.)
I want to share with you about another traditional, Belgian-style beer – the Witbier. Witbiers are described as refreshing, elegant, tasty, moderate-strength wheat-based ales.¹ Cheers!
The Witbier is a 400-year-old Belgian Beer Style.¹ In Flemish, the word “wit” means “white”, and signifies a beer made with wheat.² According to Garrett Oliver, Brewmaster of the Brooklyn Brewery, in the 1500s, “spices from far-flung lands started to become available in Europe” and quickly found their way into European cooking – and brewing.³ The Witbier is a relic from this movement, often incorporating one or more spices into the brew, popularly coriander or Curacao orange peel⁴ but sometimes ingredients like chamomile, cumin, cinnamon, and Grains of Paradise.¹ Records show multiple variations of white beer brewed in the Flanders region of Belgium because wheat grew especially well there, and unmalted grains were cheaper for brewers to use than malt. Early Belgian Witbier was usually brewed during the summer months and meant to be consumed quickly as a summer refresher. This beer began to be made year-round and became quite popular in Belgium – that is until World War I. The war forced wheat to be rationed for bread making only.² By the 1950s, Witbier had nearly gone extinct – “a victim of wars, fashionable lagers, and brewery consolidations.”³ Fortunately, a man named Pierre Celis changed it all. Celis, a milkman and former brewery employee, held a certain fondness for Witbier, and set about reviving it.² He started a new brewery called De Kluis, which was dedicated to creating a Witbier called Hoegaarden, named for the town where the brewery was located.⁴ It became quite popular, and inspired other Belgium as well as international breweries around the world to brew Witbiers.
Witbiers have light, grainy, spicy wheat aromas, often with a bit of tartness. Moderate perfumey coriander, often with complex herbal, spicy, or peppery notes may appear in the background. You’ll also get moderate zesty, citrusy-orange fruitiness.¹
The Witbier’s appearance is very pale straw to very light gold in color. The SRM, or Standard Reference Method is a way brewers measure a beers color, and Witbier should range between 2-4.¹ See SRM chart below.
Additionally, it may appear hazy from the wheat and oats.²
With the Witbier, the mouthfeel tends to have medium body, smoothness and light creaminess from the unmalted wheat and oats.¹
The flavor traits of the Witbier are similar to its aroma – pleasant malty-sweet grain flavor (often with a honey and/or vanilla character²) and an orange fruitiness. Herbal-spicy flavors are common and subtly balanced. There may be a low spicy-earth hop flavor, but it won’t get in the way of the spices. Additionally, hop bitterness will be medium-low, and won’t interfere with the refreshing flavors of fruit and spice.¹
Some brewers add another traditional touch to their Witbier by conducting a limited lactic fermentation, blending in a portion of soured beer, or adding lactic acid to enhance the tart crispness of the beer.²
The book The Brewmaster’s Table³ suggests several excellent food pairings with the Witbier. Author and Brewmaster Garrett Oliver states that, “as nice as some other beers are with salads, witbier has to be the overall winner.” He does caution against using dressing that is overly sweet, and suggests that vinaigrettes are the best way to go.
Later, Oliver says, “at brunch, Witbier tastes better than the best orange juice you’ve ever had.” He continues to say that “the orange aromatics awaken the senses and then provide a beautiful counterpoint to egg dishes” and “bacon and sausages will swoon before its quenching acidity.”
Another pairing he calls “a real star” is Witbier and fish, because it is light enough to complement “even the most delicate fish” while with stronger dishes it “lifts the oils and brightens flavors without disturbing the essential qualities of the fish.”
I hope this post offered you some insight to yet another wonderful beer style. Keep your eyes peeled, Stormcloud Brewing Company may be releasing a limited small-batch Witbier in the very near future!
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. mug club members.)
To quote the Oxford Companion to Beer, “Belgium is to beer what Cuba is to cigars and France is to wine.”¹ On that note, I wanted to share with you some information about two traditional Belgian-inspired brews – the Dubbel and the Tripel.
The Belgian monastic brewing tradition started long ago, stemming as far back as the Middle Ages. Many monasteries followed the Rule of St. Benedict of 530 A.D., which told monks how to live a spiritual life and run a monastery. One of the Benedictine values required that monasteries be self-sufficient. This led monks to create wares they could sell – some made bread, some made cheese, some sold eggs, and some made beer!²
The beer of these early monasteries tasted quite different than the modern Belgian beers we know and love³ – and this is largely because of the destruction many of them faced throughout history. Nearly all the monasteries in Belgium were closed or destroyed during the French Revolution in the 1790s. Many were rebuilt, but were once again demolished during World War I. After rebuilding following the war, beer styles such as the Dubbel and Tripel began to emerge. These styles helped return monastery breweries to prominence, but most had to rebuild again after World War II.² One thing that’s certain, the Belgian brewing tradition is resilient!
The Dubbel and Tripel are styles that emerged from what is known as the Trappist tradition. Currently, there are only seven breweries in the world that can legally call their beer Trappist – meaning they are brewed on monastery grounds under the supervision of monks.¹ You may also hear the term Abbey beer, which means while not Trappist, it is brewed in association with an actually monastery.² Because of these specifications, you won’t hear secular breweries calling themselves Trappist or Abbey, even when they make Dubbels or Tripels. Out of respect for this tradition, you’ll often hear these style of beers brewed in America called “Belgian-inspired” or “Belgian-style.”
Discussing the Dubbel and Tripel may lead you to wondering, is there such thing as a Singel? What about a Quadrupel? And what do the names mean?
Yes, there is such thing as a Belgian Singel, but “they remain an elusive beast that rarely leaves the walls of the few monasteries where it’s made.”⁴ As far as Quadrupels go, you may know them under a more familiar name – the Belgian Dark Strong Ale (like Stormcloud’s The Farthest Shore.) Quadrupels and Dark Strongs are pretty universally accepted as synonymous names for the same style.²
As far as these numerical names go, it’s not as simple as one may think – historians can’t seem to agree on where the names come from. Not only that, but there isn’t an exact mathematical relationship between the styles.⁴ Generally, but not always, the alcohol content goes up with each style. They do not double or triple in alcohol content as the names might imply, but instead the average alcohol content goes up by about 1.5-2.0% ABV.
Dubbels are described by the Beer Judge Certification Program 2015 Style Guidelines as “A deep reddish-copper, moderately strong, malty complex Trappist ale with rich malty flavors, dark or dried fruit esters, and light alcohol blended together in a malty presentation that still finishes fairly dry.”⁵ It lists the ABV being somewhere between 6-7.6% and the IBUs being between 15-25 with a low perceived bitterness. Dubbel’s color can range between light amber to dark amber.²
In Dubbels you’ll often find the flavors of caramel, brown sugar, dark rum, raison, plum, or dark cherry.² The Brewers Association recommends pairing this beer style with apple-smoked saysages, washed-rind cheeses, and milk chocolate.⁶ Trust me, I know our Dubbel (B., Sirius) is an excellent food beer – it goes with just about everything on our menu!
Tripels are described by the Beer Judge Certification Program 2015 Style Guidelines as “A pale, somewhat spicy, dry, strong Trappist ale with a pleasant rounded malt flavor and firm bitterness. Quite aromatic, with spicy, fruity, and light alcohol notes combining with the supportive clean malt character to produce a surprisingly drinkable beverage considering the high alcohol level.”⁵ It lists the ABV being between 7.5-9.5% and the IBUs between 20-40 with moderate perceived bitterness. Tripel’s tend to be light gold to gold in color.² I always remember that Dubbels are darker than Tripels through alliteration.
In Tripels, you’ll often find esters that produce flavors such as orange, lemon, apricot, peach, pear, or banana.² A few food pairing suggestion include roasted turkey, triple creme cheese, and caramelized banana creme brûlée.⁶
I hope this blog post taught you a little something you didn’t know about two traditional Belgian-inspired brews. Now all you need is to order a B., Sirius Dubbel or 228 Tripel to go! Cheers!
References for this blog post:
¹Oliver, Garrett, editor. The Oxford Companion to Beer. Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 1-3.
²De Baets, Yvan, editor. Belgian Beer Styles Course. Cicerone Certification Program, 2020, pp. 67-73. Road to Cicerone®.
³Mulder, Roel. “The Original Belgium Abbey Beers.” Zymurgy, Mar. 2020, pp. 42-43.
⁴Reis, Mike. “A Beginner’s Guide to Belgian Beer Styles.” Serious Eats, edited by Niki Achitoff-Gray, Serious Eats Inc., 4 Mar. 2014, drinks.seriouseats.com/2014/03/guide-to-belgian-beer-styles-what-is-dubbel-quad-saison-wit-lambic-gueuze.html.
Right before our temporary closure due to COVID-19, we at Stormcloud Brewing Company had just put on tap an incredibly unique beer called a Sahti. I would love to share with you what I learned about this style!
According to The Oxford Companion to Beer, the Sahti is “a farmhouse beer style indigenous to Finland” and “is one of the oldest beer types still brewed today.”¹ It is traditionally made with rye and juniper,² and often with baker’s yeast¹ instead of brewer’s yeast. According to the BJCP Style Guidelines, “the juniper acts a bit like hops in the balance and flavor.”² Sahti’s also often have a banana-clove character, but it is completely dependent on what yeast is used. Since the Sahti is a Farmhouse Ale, it can vary greatly by ingredients, taste, and location brewed – and is adjustable according to the brewer.¹
Sahti is considered an Historical Beer style, and for good reason – casks of Sahti were discovered on a sunken Viking ship dated back to the 9th century, and “some historians even claim ancient beer styles like Sahti were the motivation behind developed agriculture in Scandinavia.”³ According to beer historian Mika Laitinen, the fact that it has survived the arrival of distilled alcohol, the onset of the era of cheap industrial beer, and prohibition is thoroughly impressive. He believes that “without its rich and unique taste, the traditional would surely have been dead by now.”⁴
The word sahti come from the Swedish word saft, meaning “juice” or “sap.” One thing I found particularly entertaining was that the Finnish-speaking brewers would intentionally refer to farmhouse ale as “juice” to mislead and evade the Swedish-speaking taxmen.⁴
The photo below is a woman brewing Sahti in Karvia, Finland around 1930. Aside from a few details, it is a similar setup to what brewers would have used in the Iron Age.⁴ Prior to the existence of metal cauldrons, brewers used wooden vessels which could not be heated to a boil over a fire. Instead, many Sahtis were not boiled, and those that were used hot stones put directly into the liquid.⁴ Additionally, past and present Sahti masters do not use thermometers, but instead measure the temperature using their fingers and the tip of their elbow.¹
Sahti was traditionally served in a large wooden vessel called haarikka, which was intended to be shared.⁴ These were most often passed around and consumed in the sauna.¹ You can see photos of haarikkas below.
If you haven’t yet tried a Sahti, I hope this has inspired you to do so and take a sip of history! On that note, I’d like to leave you with an old Finnish saying:
“In drinking sati, the feet get drunk first, and then the head.”⁴
References for this blog post:
¹Oliver, Garrett, editor. The Oxford Companion to Beer. Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 709-711.
As many of you know, I am running for election to the American Homebrewers Association Governing Committee. Please consider voting for me! If you’d like to get to know me a little better, check out the video below, followed by my Candidate Statement. The election ends March 31st, so go vote now!
In the video below I answer 4 questions: What’s the most interesting thing you’ve ever brewed?
What beer are you most proud of brewing?
What’s your favorite thing about working in the brewing industry?
Do you have experience with other nonprofits?
My Candidate Statement:
I have been homebrewing since 2009 and professionally involved in the craft beer industry since 2011. I first got into homebrewing through a local bottle shop that also sold homebrewing equipment. I bought beer from them so frequently that they suggested I try making it – so I did! I fell in love with the process, as well as the rich history and community that goes along with brewing. As a college student, I secured a graphic design internship with Grand Rapids Brewing Company where I developed general knowledge of the brewing industry and contributed to label and tap handle designs. In August 2012 I was one of the flagship Taproom Servers for Perrin Brewing Company, and soon also assisted as Menu Graphics Supervisor. This position instilled in me a deep desire to teach others about beer, which led me to pursue multiple veins of beer education – both as a student and a teacher.
I am currently in the University of Vermont’s Business of Craft Beer program, and am studying for my second level of Cicerone certification. I’ve also had the opportunity to lead homebrewing classes through a local nonprofit’s Fermentation Guild, and I develop monthly beer education pieces for the mug club members at my current employer, Stormcloud Brewing Company, where I am the Marketing Assistant and Membership Coordinator. Additionally, I am very familiar with the nonprofit world – I founded a nonprofit called Drink Beach Beer, and currently serve on the board of the nonprofit Cognition, a local Science and Discovery Center.
I believe my experience in the nonprofit sector as well as my time as a homebrewer and beer educator would make me a great fit for the American Homebrewers Association Governing Committee. Not to mention, I drink a heck of a lot of craft beer!
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. mug club members.)
A foeder, (pronounced FOOD-er) is a really, really large barrel, typically oak, used to age wine and beer.¹ Not only are they for imparting strong oak flavors into the beer, they also allow a slow addition of oxygen into the barrel over time; which changes the profile and flavor of the beer. The shape of a foeder may trend towards ovular or more cylindrical than the standard barrel shape. ²
Foeders have been used in Belgium and other European countries for hundreds of years, and are now growing in popularity in the US in the craft beer community, for sour beer or other traditional Belgian-style beer.
Our first foeder was purchased as the next step in developing Stormcloud’s sour program. Sour beer is an age-old Belgian tradition of intentionally introducing microbes (yes, sometimes even ‘wild’ microbes) into the beer to create a variety of flavors – sour, tart, funky, earthy, leathery – and so many more!
We purchased our foeder from Foeder Crafters of America – the only maker of foeders in the United States.³ It was built by hand from American white oak. The wood is air dried and exposed to the elements for 2 years, and once the foeder is built it is steamed for at least a week. Below you can see a photo of our foeder right after it was built, before it was shipped to us.
Our second foeder, which has been christened The Collaborator is currently being used for “clean” (not sour) wood-aged beer. As its name implies, these beers will be made in collaboration with other breweries. Our first beer in The Collaborator was brewed with our good friends from The Filling Station Microbrewery (see photo below.)
The collaboration beer was a Helles Lager, and the release date has yet to be determined – it all depends on how it ages in the oak and when the brewers taste it and think it’s ready.
Bon Appétit magazine describes sour beer as “a style loved by brew nerds but easily appreciated by anyone. An acquired taste, but one we think is well worth cultivating.”⁴ I couldn’t agree more, it is certainly a taste worth cultivating! Though I’ll do my best to explain the nuances of sour beer below, talking terroir of beer requires a little more show than tell.⁵ When well made, sour beer can be among the most complex and refreshing of beers, terrific with food and easily pushing the boundaries of what the modern drinker thinks of as “beer.”⁶
Sour beer, put simply, is a sour tasting beer whose flavor is attained by the introduction of bacteria and/or wild yeast.
Before diving too far in, I want to address the name – SOUR beer. You heard it here folks – NOT ALL SOUR BEER IS ACTUALLY SOUR. Sour beer is an umbrella term that can encompass a spectrum of flavor styles – tart, fruity, red wine-like, funky, sweet, tangy, leathery, citrus…and the list goes on and on. In the modern American brewing industry, there is much discussion about replacing the term or dividing up the general category of sour beer. Jeffers Richardson, director of Firestone Walker’s Barrelworks wild beer facility discusses this by saying “That term, much to my chagrin, is not really instructive. It assumes a beer should be very tart and very sour, and yet we encompass everything. It doesn’t do the category justice.”⁵ So if the term “sour” has a negative connotation in your mind, the first thing to know is that the name sour beer can mean so much more than that.
Before refrigeration and our modern knowledge of sanitation, nearly, if not all beer was to some degree sour. This is primarily due to poorly understood, often naturally occurring bacteria.⁷ People usually avoided brewing during warm weather, when the bacteria and wild yeast was even more likely to produce unbearable acidic and vinegar-like flavors. When brewed in the colder seasons intentionally, traditional sour beer styles are usually produced by aging beer in wooden barrels and involve the attempt to control acidity levels and create agreeable flavor.⁶ You can read more about these traditional styles and their history in the next section.
As craft brewing took off in the United States, there emerged a new generation of brewers who aspired to create increasingly unique and flavorful beers. Many of these breweries have taken inspiration from classically sour Belgian styles. Here at Stormcloud we’ve described ourselves “a small brewery crafting ales within the time-honored Belgian brewing tradition of ignoring time-honored brewing traditions” – and this is an excellent way to describe the evolution of sour beer in the US. Not content with mimicking Belgian sour beers, American brewers have started to develop what might be termed “new world” sour beers.⁶ Due to this evolution of the sour beer style, there is no agreed-upon style guidelines and are yet to be classified in any particular category. The Oxford Companion to Beer says that “this, of course, is part of the fun for the brewers who are making them.”⁶
Berliner Weisse: A very pale, refreshing, low-alcohol German wheat beer with a clean lactic sourness and a very high carbonation level. Referred by Napoleon’s troops in 1809 as “the Champagne of the north.”⁸
Flanders Red Ale: An indigenous beer of the West Flanders region of Belgium. Sour, fruity, red wine-like Belgian-style ale with interesting supportive malt flavors and fruit complexity. The dry finish and tannin completes the mental image of a fine red wine. The beer is aged for up to two years, often in huge oaken barrels which contain the resident bacteria necessary to sour the beer. It is common in Belgium to blend old beer with young to balance the sourness and acidity found in aged beer.⁸
Oud Bruin: A malty, fruity, aged, somewhat sour Belgian-style brown ale. An “old ale” tradition, indigenous to the East Flanders region of Belgium, which has roots back to the 1600s. Historically brewed as a “provision beer” that would develop some sourness as it aged. While Flanders red beers are aged in oak, the brown beers are warm aged in stainless steel.⁸
Lambic: A fairly sour, often moderately funky wild Belgian wheat beer with sourness taking the place of hop bitterness in the balance. Traditionally spontaneously fermented in the Brussels area and served uncarbonated.⁸
Fruit Lambic: A complex, fruity, pleasantly sour, wild wheat ale fermented by a variety of Belgian microbiota, and showcasing the fruit contributions blended with the wild character. The type of fruit can sometimes be hard to identify as fermented and aged fruit characteristics can seem different from the more recognizable fresh fruit aromas and flavors.⁸
Gueuze: A complex, pleasantly sour but balanced wild Belgian wheat beer that is highly carbonated and very refreshing. The spontaneous fermentation character can provide a very interesting complexity, with a wide range of wild barnyard, horse blanket, or leather characteristics intermingling with citrusy-fruity flavors and acidity.⁸
Gose: A highly-carbonated, tart and fruity wheat ale with a restrained coriander and salt character and low bitterness. Very refreshing, with bright flavors and high attenuation. Moderate to restrained but noticeable sourness, although historical versions could be very sour.⁸
American-Style Sour Ales: Style guidelines for American-style sours are intentionally nebulous because American brewers are still rewriting the rules. Many are inspired by traditional sour styles, which are used as a jumping off point to experiment with techniques such as hops additions for bittering and aroma, racking sour beers into freshly used wine or spirit barrels, blending together batches, adding adjuncts, or just about anything else they can think of.⁹
In addition to foeder, here are a few other sour beer-related vocabulary that you might like to know.
Lactobacillus & Pediococcus: These are the two main bacteria that contribute to the actual acidity or sourness, in the beer. Skilled brewers of sour beer will blend these bacterial strains carefully, massaging fermentations to create the acid profile they desire in the beer.⁶
Brettanomyces: A wild yeast strain (considered a scourge in most vineyards, though welcomed among many natural winemakers) that is often used in the making of new world sour beers.⁶
Wild Beer: This is an ever-constant debate among brewers, but the term is generally used to describe any beer that displays the earthy characteristics of Brettanomyces yeast strains (or other wild yeast strains), regardless of whether the beer is a light golden ale or a dark stout.⁶
Mixed Culture: Instead of using a single clean yeast strain, brewers intentionally select a combination of different yeasts and often bacteria to work their magic in a fermentation with the goal of creating something new and interesting.¹⁰
Blending: The act of combining two or more beers. Through blending, you can create unique complexity that otherwise you can’t achieve with unblended beer. You can blend a five-year-old version and a one-year-old version of the same recipe for a unique final product, for example; or blend beers made with the same recipe but fermented with two different yeast strains; or blend two or more completely different styles.¹¹
Kettle Souring:(also called quick souring) Souring beer in a steel “kettle” and adding lactobacillus (a bacteria that converts sugar into lactic acid.) While this method is faster and easier than the traditional sour beer method, it loses much of the complexity. ¹²
Spontaneous Fermentation: What happens when a brewer leaves the inoculation (the moment when yeast and bacteria come in contact with the liquid) up to whatever organisms happen to be in the air or on the fruit that they are fermenting.¹³
Coolship: A shallow bed that can be attached to a truck and driven through the surrounding area to inoculate wort with wild yeast.⁵ This past October, we collaborated with Speciation Artisan Ales, brewing wort for their cool ship. (see photos below)
I hope this sour beer primer made you excited to join us on our journey through Stormcloud’s new sour beer project, and give the beer we release a try. Each beer we craft is made to be unique, flavorful, and original. You never know what could become your next favorite beer!
¹ “Foeder (FOOD-er) For Thought!” Dechutes Brewery, 19 Mar. 2015, deschutesbrewery.com/foeder-food-er-thought/.
² Dykstra, Jim. “What is a Foeder?” The Beer Connoisseur, 8 Sept. 2016, beerconnoisseur.com/articles/what-foeder.
³ Shaw, Iain. “America’s Only Foeder Crafter Is Changing How We Make and Drink Wild Beers.” VinePair, edited by Erica Duecy, VinePair Inc., 11 Mar. 2019, vinepair.com/articles/american-foeder-sour-beer-wild-ale/.
⁴ Bernstein, Joshua M. “Sour Beer Primer: How (and Why) to Drink These Funky Wild Ales.” Bon Appétit, Condé Nast, 26 Feb. 2014, bonappetit.com/drinks/beer/slideshow/sour-beer-primer.
⁵ Roth, Bryan. “A Culture of Confusion — The Process, Vernacular, and Challenge of Selling “Sour” Beer.” Good Beer Hunting, edited by Austin L. Ray, 5 Apr. 2018, goodbeerhunting.com/blog/2018/4/4/a-culture-of-confusion-the-process-vernacular-and-challenge-of-selling-sour-beer.
⁶ Oliver, Garrett, editor. The Oxford Companion to Beer. 1 ed., Oxford University Press, 2012.
⁷ DeBenedetti, Christian. “A Brief History of Sour Beer.” The New Yorker, 26 July 2013, newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/a-brief-history-of-sour-beer.
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. mug club members.)
“Malz ist die Seele des Bieres” – translated from German as “Malt is the soul of beer.” Without malted barley, which provides fermentable sugars that lead to the production of alcohol, we would have no beer. To take it a step farther – without maltsters, we’d have no malt! In this post, I’d like to focus on a group of people essential to the brewing process: maltsters.
Before we dive into the world of maltsters, I wanted to give you a quick refresher on malt. Malt is one of the four key ingredients in nearly all beer, the others being water, hops, and yeast. Most brewing malt is made from barley and wheat, though other grains like oats and rye can also be malted. According to Thomas Kraus-Weyermann of Weyermann Specialty Malts, “malt varieties range from very pale and sweet to amber and biscuit-like to almost black and coffee-like.”² This range of malt varieties accounts for not only the different amounts of sugar turned to alcohol, but also the different colors, flavors, and mouthfeel of beer.
The reason brewers use malt is because the raw barley kernels are rock hard, which makes the carbohydrates needed for brewing inaccessible. These carbohydrates are “protected by a matrix of protein surrounded by rigid cell walls.”¹ The malting process liberates these starches from the barley, so it can be used in making beer.
The very first step in the brewing process is milling (grinding) the malt for the brew. Once it is ground, the malt is now called grist. The next step in the brewing process is forming mash by mixing water with crushed malt. In the mash is where brewers want to convert malt starch into sugars, which later in the brewing process yeast will turn into alcohol.
As you may have guessed, a maltster is the person who turns barley into malt. All About Beer Magazine explains, “From barley selection to malting control, it is the maltster who determines the foundational quality of a beer.”³ The malting process has three primary phases: steeping, germination, and kilning. During steeping, the maltster submerges barley in water on and off for two to three days. The hydration of the grain (with intermittent periods of aeration) initiates a reaction that will start the growth of a new barley plant inside the kernel. During germination, the maltster removes the barley from the steeping water, and keeps it moist for three to five days, allowing the barley seed to begin growing.¹ The kernel produces little rootlets, called chit. Sprowt Labs explains the importance of chit, saying, “maltsters use lab analysis after malting to ensure quality, but, as a big or small malthouse, they rely on chit counts and other sensory analysis during malting.”⁴ The final phase in malting is kilning, where the sprouted kernel is loaded on to the perforated floor of a kiln, and fans drive heated air through the floor. First the fans blow warm air to remove grain moisture, and then fan air temperatures vary, depending on what type of flavors are desired in the finished malt.
The art of making malt has been around for thousands of years.⁵ Though some form of malt existed before recorded history, there is a legend that early Egyptians were creating malt by lowering baskets of grain into wells to steep, then raising it above the water to germinate, and drying it out in the sun.⁶ Throughout history, the making and selling of malt was often tightly controlled, “in Nurnberg in 1290 only barley was allowed to be malted, while in Augsberg between 1433 and 1550 beer was only to be made from malted oats. In England malt carried a tax for many years until 1880.”⁷ By the 17th century, beer was predominantly brewed with malted barley, and it was done on the tiled floor of a large kiln – and maltsters had to constantly be turning it with wooden shovels. The modern malting tools we know today (such as aerated boxes) were first introduced in the late 19th century.
Just like there are craft breweries, there are also craft maltsters!
The Craft Maltsters Guild states that, “craft products deserve craft ingredients. While there’s a lot of good malt out there, the majority of it comes from big businesses with production volumes that dwarf all but the largest craft beer and spirits brands. With craft malt, malt buyers can now see eye-to-eye with malt producers. And it turns out that when these folks are seeing eye-to-eye, great things happen.”⁸
Meet Alison Babb, owner of Empire Malting Co. She is located in Empire, MI, cultivating her product less than two miles from Lake Michigan and the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, a location which she greatly credits for the terroir of her malt. This area is known by locals as ‘Beer Valley’ due to the abundance of hops and barley grown there. Empire Malting is the only malthouse in Michigan that grows their own barley onsite, and is one of the few in the nation.
In addition to being a fierce farmer and maltster, Alison is also an accomplished artist. She paints and designs all of the labels on her malt that goes into the market.
Here at Stormcloud Brewing, we are incredibly proud of investing in local ingredients, both malt and hops. Nearly every single Stormcloud beer contains Alison’s malt, and it definitely plays a role in the high-quality flavor we come to expect in our brews.
During 2019’s Frankfort Beer Week, we had the opportunity to host Alison at our tasting room where she gave an informative presentation about the malting process and her experience in the industry. Our brewers crafted four different small batch beers, each designed to highlight a different variety of her malt. Her knowledge is unparalleled, and having the opportunity to talk to her was a real treat.
¹ Daniels, Ray, et al. Brewing Ingredients & Process Course. 2nd ed., Chicago, Cicerone® Certification Program, 2018, pp. 10-15. Road to Cicerone®.
² Oliver, Garrett, editor. “Malt.” The Oxford Companion to Beer. 1 ed., Oxford University Press, 2012.
Did you know that the history of beer began with women, and females have played a significant role in the brewing scene ever since? In fact, The Oxford Companion to Beer states that “for most of recorded human history, women have been responsible for supplying the world’s beer.” This piece is meant to highlight just a few ways women have impacted the beer scene both historically and today.
The upper left image represents Sumerian goddess Ninkasi, the goddess who watched over all brewing activities. The very first documented beer recipe is from a tablet dating back to 1800 BC called Hymn to Ninkasi.
The upper right image is meant to represent the role that religious women have played in the world of beer. One nun, St. Hildegard of Bingen, was the first person in history to publicly recommend using hops for brewing, because of their healing and preserving qualities. Throughout history, much beer has been brewed in Abbeys by nuns. To this day, Sister Doris Engelhard, Europe’s last brewmaster nun, is brewing at Mallersdorf Abbey. She has been quoted saying that brewing is her way of serving God.
The lower left image represents The Pink Boots Society, a nonprofit with international membership created to assist, inspire and encourage women beer industry professionals to advance their careers through education. Their webpage says, “We are the female movers and shakers in the beer industry.”
The lower right image is meant to represent the need for the craft beer industry to to invest in diversity and inclusion. This includes women and nongender identifying individuals, and people of all different races and backgrounds. The Brewers Association acknowledged this need by establishing its Diversity Committee in 2017. Recently, this issue has come even more to the forefront with the #IAmCraftBeer movement – a hashtag introduced in response to a racist email sent to Chicago beer writer Chalonda White.
11″x17″ prints are available for $15 plus shipping. (if you live close to me or will be in my area, I’ll get it to you for no shipping fee.)
(Note: This is a modified version of a piece I wrote for the Stormcloud Brewing Co. mug club members.)
Back in December, I talked with you all about pairing beer and holiday cookies. It only seems appropriate that now, at the tale end of summer, I talk about pairing beer – and ICE CREAM!
Unfortunately I didn’t have the time (or tummy space) to go around to every ice cream shop in the area (we have so many good ones!) and try their tasty creations with our beer, but I can share with you what I’ve discovered through research as well as a few things I’ve picked up on from personal exploration.
The story goes that the original ice cream float was invented by Robert McCay Green in 1874 when he made the serendipitous decision to use ice cream in his sodas when he ran out of ice. Some of the most common varieties of ice cream floats are root beer floats, coke floats, and Boston Coolers; and in Australia and New Zealand ice cream floats are called “spiders”. Thanks to creative mixologists and at-home beer & ice cream lovers, beer floats have earned a spot in today’s culture.
As some of you may know, at the Stormcloud Pub we offer beer floats as a dessert option. Traditionally, beer floats are made with vanilla ice cream and a Porter, Stout, or bourbon barrel-aged beer. This is for a number of reasons, including the fact that visually it looks the most like a root beer float. Additionally, creamy vanilla flavors contrast well with roasty malts and works to tame the boozy burn present in some barrel-aged beer. I also found an article from Draft Magazine that points out the classic combination of vanilla and chocolate, commenting, “we never tire of the melty-milkshake-like duo of vanilla plopped into a rich chocolate stout.” If you are new to the whole beer float thing, I think this is a perfect place to start.
Are there other beer/ice cream flavor combinations to explore? You betcha! Certified Cicerone Marcus TenHarmsel says, “If you consider the basic principles for beer pairings- match strength with strength, find harmonies, and consider contrasting elements- ice cream can offer loads of fun pairings. Especially to the adventurous soul who is willing to make mistakes and try unusual things.”(Meewes).
Back in 2014, our Head Brewer Brian and Beer Educator Charla did some investigative work regarding beer and ice cream pairings. In an interview with MyNorth.com Brian shared that he thought combining beer and ice cream “would be disgusting.” According to the article, he was surprised with how well some of the combinations worked. He also shared that “in almost every pairing, the beer that went with the ice cream was a surprise. The thing is, when the pairing did not work, it really didn’t work, like you wanted to spit it out. But then you’d hit the one that worked, and it was like, Oh my gosh, that is really, really good!”
This week I went to visit our friends across the street at The Cool Spot and did a little taste testing of my own. These combos won’t be available in the pub, but if you’re craving a frosty treat and feeling adventurous, here are a few combinations I suggest trying at home:
Orange Sherbet with our 228 Tripel: This was definitely a combination that I didn’t see coming. It was pleasantly reminiscent of Triple Sec, which has made me wonder – if I also add some cranberry sorbet, would it taste like a Cosmopolitan? Looks like I have some more taste testing to do…
Lemon Cheesecake Bar Ice Cream with our Whiled Away® IPA: I absolutely LOVED this combination. Bitter, hoppy beers do well when paired with foods of equally strong flavors, and this ice cream does the trick. The lemon helps to highlight the gorgeous citrus notes in Whiled Away® while the graham cracker compliments the clean malt bill – and the sweet, tangy cream cheese cuts through the hop bitterness in the most delightful way.
Pistachio Almond Ice Cream with our B., Sirius Dubbel: Our B., Sirius Dubbel has the slightly sweet taste of brown caramel malt up front, which transitions to flavors reminiscent of dried stone fruit mid-palate, and ends with a distinctly dry finish. This combination seemed like a no-brainer – nuts are the perfect pairing with caramel sweetness and dried fruit. Trust me, even if you don’t like fruit cake, this fusion of flavors is one worth trying.
Michigan Pot Hole Ice Cream with our Rowed Hard Stout: Initially I was concerned that this combination was going to have too much going on, but soon discovered that it’s a match made in heaven. Rowed Hard has some sharp, bitter, roasty notes from the dark malt we use, and the rich, creamy sweetness of this fudge-filled dairy treat balances it out perfectly.
As a reminder, taste is subjective. You may find a combination that you absolutely love, but that others are less than thrilled about. To me, the best part of food and beer pairing is the journey – both trial and error and successes. My advice is to be willing to try all sorts of bold, unusual combinations, because you never know what wonderful tastes you could find. If you decide to do some ice cream exploring with craft beer, I’d love to hear about your delicious discoveries! In the words of craft beer, food, and travel writer Bryan M. Richards, “Remember it’s beer – so have fun!”
If the thought of putting ice cream in your beer is just too much for you, perhaps you would be more interested in putting beer in your ice cream. Ice cream companies across the country are working with local breweries to concoct beer-flavored ice cream. A few of my favorite that I’ve come across are Sweet Action Ice Cream in Denver, Salt & Straw in Portland, and Frozen Pints in Atlanta. There are plenty of folks doing it right in Michigan as well, including Ice Box Brand in Muskegon and Furniture City Creamery in Grand Rapids. Are you more into DIY? The American Homebrewers Association published this articleon making your own beer ice cream.
John Steinbeck’s character Doc from Cannery Row thought, “a man with a beard, ordering a beer milkshake in a town where he wasn’t known – they might call the police.”
Don’t worry, folks – I won’t call the police if I hear you order a beer float!